Could my child have Diabetes ?

Diabetes in Children

     signs

Diabetes Mellitus (DM); name itself is  fearful and more so if in context to children. It is a metabolic disorder with high blood sugar level. Major Symptoms are increased urination, increased thirst and hunger. Insulin is the only way by which body can use sugar. If insulin decreases sugar rises.

diabetes-mellitus-type-1

4 types: three most common types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. 4th is due rare genetic disorders

Most common in children is DM type 1 (Insulin dependent, IDDM or Juvenile diabetes).

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Type 1DM:

 

It is an autoimmune disorder in which body starts to destroy its own cell (beta cells of pancreas that makes insulin). Pancreas loses its ability to produce Insulin.

Type 1 is less common than type 2 DM.

2 main factors: genetics and the environment (certain viruses, toxins which can trigger autoimmune response).

1

Type 2 DM:

 

More common in adults but nowadays seen in children too.

Pancreas still makes insulin but is not effective (Insulin resistance)

patho

It is hard to diagnose in adolescent; as some cases are asymptomatic.

Lifestyle changes (which are leading to unhealthy gain in weight) like

  • Decrease physical activities
  • More screen time
  • Fast food

It can be managed with Exercise and change in diet but in some cases medicine or Insulin injections are needed.

Gestational DM is diabetes that develops during pregnancy.

 

SYMTPOMS:

symptoms-of-diabetes

 

Chart is depicting few signs and symptoms of adults too.

Early

  • frequent peeing (urination) in large amounts (polyuria)
  • increase in thirst (polydipsia)
  • dry mouth or throat
  • weight loss
  • increase in appetite (polyphagia)
  • feeling tired or weak
  • diaper rash that doesn’t improve with medicated cream

s,s

Late

  • weight loss
  • stomach aches
  • nausea and vomiting
  • heavy, rapid breathing (Kussmaul breathing)
  • drowsiness

 

Diagnosis:

Random Blood sugar level > 200mg/dl

Urine test for ketones

It will need further evaluation under guidance of child specialist or Pediatric endocrinologist.

Complications:

comp

 

Life changes full circle at the time when diagnosis is confirmed. 

Coping with the diagnosis is also difficult to start with as parents are in denial /shock. It usually is followed by sadness/fear/anxiety. Some will have feeling of guilt and some will have anger.

diabetespic

Parents (and children as well):

  • Need to learn the skills needed to take care of child (injection insulin, measure blood sugar at home etc)
  • Face Emotional Disturbance
  • Life style changes (dietary changes, need to count calories.)

 

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Treatment

Aim:

  • Maintain the blood sugar level as close to normal as possible at all times to avoid complications.
  • Coping well with disease and trying to have a healthy and productive life.

 

Basic treatment of type 1 diabetes:

  • Insulin ( via injections or pump)
  • Balanced meal with help of dietician
  • Monitoring of blood sugar levels
  • Regular check up

Nursing Intervention Nursing Care Plan for Children with Diabetes Mellitus

 

Basic Treatment Type 2 diabetes:

What-causes-diabetes

  • Healthy Lifestyle
  • Increased physical activity
  • Balanced food
  • Weight loss
  • In some cases medications

 

Dietician: Proper Meal plan is needed to have a calorie count.

Guidelines_for_Treating_Type_2_Diabetes_in_Kids_

Growth and Development should not be affected and child should be able to live a healthy life.

prevention at school

School life should also be not affected.

For any queries refer to your child specialist or Pediatrics endocrinologist. Feel free to contact Maya Clinic .

Regards

Dr Rahul varma

“Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

  

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