Tag Archives: Best Pediatrician in Indirapuram

Typhoid Fever (mayaclinic.in)

Typhoid Fever: things we should know

 

 

Typhoid Fever (mayaclinic.in)

 

Typhoid Fever is so commonly heard off in our country. (I think most common as well as most over diagnosed disease in India).

typhoid

Cause: It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi (S.Typhi) typically living in humans and are shed through a person’s feces (poop) or urine (pee). Bacteria get into blood and spreads quickly inside leading to high grade fever within a week or two.

Without treatment, typhoid fever may last a month or more and become very serious, even life-threatening. Even after treatment during recovery phase a person can transmit this disease to others.

  food infected

Cause of Spread: 

  • Due to unclean water intake, unhygienic food and poor sanitation facilities.
  • Drinking water (and other drinks) and eating food handled by someone who has typhoid or is still a carrier.
  • Infected people can pass it on to others by touching them with unwashed hands.
  • Contaminated water by sewage, more so in area with poor sanitation and inadequate water treatment

Typhoid fever is named after a lady called typhoid mary who was suffering from this disease and used to serve food in USA leading to epidemic of this disease in that area.

tm                       typhoid-mary-article  

Symptoms: Severity depends upon vaccination status, age, general health etc

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  • Mild to High grade Fever
  • Stomach pain
  • Body pain, weakness
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Poor appetite
  • Reddish spotted rash

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Complications

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Complications: Intestinal perforation (rare)

 

Diagnosis:

Salmonella_typhimurium- gram negative bacilli under high magnification of 15000 X

  • History and examination
  • Blood tests :
    • Typhi Dot IgM: during first few days of fever
    • Widal test: after 5 days of fever (It gives false report before that). Unfortunately this test is most misused test in India. And many false positives reports are given by various labs even on first day of illness.
    • Blood Culture is gold standard: But in most cases antibiotics have been started early so yield of this test is low. And beside it is costly, so many quacks start treatment rather than testing. This treatment is often incomplete and in inadequate doses leading to drug resistance and disease recurrence.

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Treatment:

  • Antibiotics: important to give for proper duration and in adequate doses. Please do not stop medicine on your own once child starts feeling better after 2- 3 days.
  • Some Cases might not respond to oral medication and need for Intravenous medication along with fluids might arise.

Plant for treating Typhoid Fever

Stopping the Spread

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Prevent the spread to others: Wash hands regularly. People with typhoid fever should avoid preparing food. Children should stay away from school until doctor certifies them to join back school.

How to prevent Infection

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Vaccination: It is Available and routinely given around 2 years of age and every 3 years after that. Even if your child is vaccinated (Vaccine is not 100% effective and loses its effectiveness over time)

  • Sanitize water.
  • Cook all food.
  • Avoid raw food.
  • Wash hands frequently

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Feel free to contact your child doctor for any queries or contact us at MAYA CLINIC.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

” Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

 

dengue-fever heading

Want to stay safe from Dengue Fever? Read on

 Dengue Fever

  dengue-fever heading

Dengue Fever as we all know spread from bite of an infected Mosquito. It has 4 serotypes. It can cause very severe life threatening illness; however most cases are milder in nature.

Huge number of cases has been reported worldwide (50-100 million cases every year worldwide).

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Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedea Mosquito. It bites during day time only. Outbreaks can occur at anytime, however rainy season with high humidity increases changes of transmission.

Symptoms:

Occurs after 4-10 days of mosquito bite and symptoms can last from 2 to 7 days usually.

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High grade Fever associated with atleast 2 of the below mentioned features should raise suspicion of Dengue Fever:

  • Headaches
  • Body ache.  esp pain behind eyes
  • Joint Pain, bone pain, Muscular pains
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rashes (usually extensive red colored all over body)
  • Itching

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Most crucial Phase of Dengue illness occurs once fever subsides; i.e. at deffervescence of Fever as most of the complications arises at this time. At this time platelet counts start decreasing along with rise in Hematocrit values. 3rd space losing occurs, so it is very important to prevent dehydration and let your child have PLENTY OF FLUIDS.

 dengue-diagram

Severe Cases (also called dengue hemorrhagic fever):

Special attention needs to be given to these warning signs as it could lead to severe dengue:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Bleeding from any site eg gums, blood in vomiting etc
  • Rapid breathing
  • Fatigue/ restlessness
  • Altered sensorium

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Treatment:

  • At present no vaccine is available.
  • No specific medication for dengue fever.
  • Mainstay of treatment is supportive
  • Patients should seek medical advice, rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  •  Paracetamol (Crocin) is the drug of choice for Fever. Other medications like aspirin or ibuprofen should be avoided as it increases the risk of bleeding.
  • Vital Monitoring along with blood test to have a look at Hematocrit along with platelet count.
  • Platelet transfusion in some cases

Infection with one strain will provide life-time protection only against that particular strain. However, it is still possible to become infected by other strains and develop into severe dengue. Usually re-infection cases are severe.

With proper medical care and early recognition, case-fatality rates are below 1%.

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What should be done by Patients and Relatives?

  • If you suspect you have dengue you first need to avoid panic and consult a doctor soon.
  • Drink plenty of fluids, watch for urine output & watch for bleeding from any site.
  • For diagnosis, your doctor will
    • Evaluate your signs and symptoms
    • Test your blood for evidence of a dengue virus using NS1 Antigen or serology test (IgG& IgM).

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How Dengue is spread:

  • Bite from infected mosquito (Aedes aegypti)
  • Day time biting by this mosquito (esp early morning & evening)
  • Does not spread by contact

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Mosquitoes  breading Ground:

  • Clear water in nearby areas esp water filled containers etc.
  • Rest Indoors in dark areas like closet, under beds, behind curtain etc.

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Preventive measures:

  • Source reduction: eliminate mosquitoe’s egg laying sites.  Examples of the following habitats are listed:
  • Indoor, Ant traps, Flower vases and saucers
  • Water storage tank (domestic drinking water, bathroom, etc…)
  • Plastic containers, Bottles, Outdoor, Discarded bottles and tins
  • Discarded tyres, Artificial containers, Tree holes, potholes, construction sites, Drums for collecting rainwater
  • Shells, husks, pods from trees, Leaf axils of various plants
  • Community participation is the key to dengue prevention. As every household aims to reduce vector density, the transmission rate will decrease or maybe even stop.
  • Protecting yourself from mosquito bites: It can be done by using
    • Long-sleeved clothing and mosquito repellents are the most viable options.
    • Window and door screens, air conditioning reduces the risk of mosquitoes coming into contact with the household members.
    • Mosquito nets (and/or insecticide-treated nets) will also provide additional protection to people sleeping during the day, or protect against other mosquitoes which can bite at night (such as malaria).
    • Household insecticides aerosols, mosquito coils or other insecticide vaporizers maybe also reduce biting activity.

 outbreak

 

 

Feel free to contact your doctor for detail or contact us at MAYA CLINIC.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

 

Is your child Anemic?

Is your child Anemic?

 P_iron1

 

Anemia is very commonly seen in young children who are mainly on milk based diet (As Milk is poor source of Iron). Breast milk has small quantity of Iron but it is readily absorbed in body; so for first 6 months of life Iron deficiency is not prominent. But after 6 months of life when top milk is started, it leads to Anemia if proper Iron supplementation or appropriate weaning food is not given.

That is the very reason you will see all the infant formula feeds and cereals fortified with Iron these days. As Iron is needed to make Hemoglobin; which is oxygen carrying component of red blood cells (RBCs).

 anemia image

 What is the right Quantity of Iron needed by my Kid?

  • Birth till 6months: adequate iron is there in mother’s breast milk. No need for supplementation unless baby is preterm or suffering from any illness.
  • 7 -12 months: 11mg per day. It can be given by using infant formula feeds or cereals fortified with Iron or using Iron supplement drops.
  • Toddlers: 7 mg/day; Kids aged 4-8 years need around 10 mg per day. Older Kids between 9- 13 years need around 8 mg/day.
  • Adolescent boys need 11 mg /day and girls 15 mg/day of Iron. Girls need more as in adolescence more blood loss during menstruation.
  • Special need in athletes and children involving extreme physical activities need even more iron.

 

How deficiency Develops?

  • Infants and young children mainly on cow’s milk develop iron deficiency as cow’s milk is low in iron and it also makes child less hungry and less likelyhood of child eating iron rich foods.
  • Cow’s milk also decreases absorption of Iron and can irritate lining of intestine causing minor intestinal bleeding and gradual loss of Iron in stool (pooty).
  • Worm Infestation
  • Iron requirement is more than normal in certain conditions like preterm babies, menstruating adolescent girls, children involved in extreme physical activities.

Signs-and-Symptoms-of-Anemia

 

What are Effects of iron Deficiency?

  • Irritability
  • Poor apetite
  • Poor growth and development
  • Behavioral problems
  • fatigue and weakness
  • pale skin and mucous membranes
  • rapid heartbeat or a new heart murmur (detected in an exam by a doctor)

If any of the above symptoms is there in your child consult your child specialist / Pediatrician and discuss regarding iron deficiency and need for supplementation. Excess of Iron is also bad , so it should be taken in appropriate doses only after consulting your child doctor.

 food

Common source of Iron in Diet

Both animal and plant source foods are available which are rich in Iron

  • red meat
  • dark poultry
  • tuna
  • salmon
  • eggs
  • tofu
  • enriched grains
  • dried beans and peas
  • dried fruits
  • leafy green vegetables
  • blackstrap molasses
  • iron-fortified breakfast cereals

 

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How to avoid Iron Deficiency in your child

  • Limit the intake of milk: 500 to 700 ml a day after 1 year of life and focus on staple diet.
  • Continue serving iron-fortified cereal until kids are 18-24 months old.
  • Avoid giving Iron supplements with milk as leads to poor absorption.
  • Serve iron-rich foods alongside foods containing vitamin C — such as tomatoes, broccoli, oranges, and strawberries — which improves the body’s absorption of iron.
  • Avoid serving coffee or tea at mealtime — both contain tannins that reduce iron absorption.

Once Iron is started in Iron deficient child; within 2 -3 days you will see significant improvement in diet.

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Infantile Hemangiomas: FAQ

 Infantile Hemangiomas

B-1 

 

 

What is it?

Infantile hemangioma or Strawberry Mark is common type of birth mark. It is usually not visible at birth. They increase in size for few months, remain stable for next few months and subside by few years.

They are not cancer like growth. They are full of small blood vessels and are bright red in color.

When it appears?

During 1st few weeks of life in most cases but may take up to 6 months to be visible.

Why my child? Did I do anything wrong?

No. You could not have done anything to prevent it. Cause of this disorder is not known yet. They are seen more commonly in preterm babies and girls and with multiple pregnancy eg twins, or triplets.

Capillary_haemangioma 

Site:

Most commonly over face, scalp and neck but sometimes over buttocks as well.

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Types:

  • Superficial hemangiomas
  • Deep hemangiomas
  • Mixed hemangiomas

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They occur in different shapes and sizes. Most children have single lesion (around 80%) but they can be multiple.

full101_161743superficial hemangioma rendering 

Are they painful?  No they are not painful

Will they grow in size? Yes, they have 3 phases

  • Growing phase: rapidly grows for first few months
  • Resting phase: by 8 to 14 months of age
  • Involution phase: starts shrinking after 1 year of age upto 5 years

Will they reoccur in next pregnancy? No increase in risk.

Will it come back? No. once it fades away, it does not grow again.

Complications

  • Interference with organ function: like vision, mouth or diaper area.
  • Ulceration
  • Bleeding 
  • TPS-growth-1 

Will the hemangioma leave a scar?

It might leave a scar depending upon size, location and whether it has got infected or ulcerated. Diagnosis is clinical in most cases. Sometimes Doppler might be done to check the blood flow.

Treatment:

No treatment in most cases. But some may need treatment. Options are

hemangioma 1

 

  • Observation: Most hemangiomas will disappear with time and without active intervention.
  • Oral systemic corticosteroids
  • Surgical removal: Only in some cases and mostly due to cosmetic reasons or in certain cases if it is interfering with organ function like vision.
  • Laser therapy:  your doctor will tell you the best option regarding your baby.
  • lazer treatment  tt
  • Medications like Vincristine, Propranolol, Regranex (becaplermin) gel etc. However currently, the FDA has not approved the use of any medication for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas.

For Detail reading regarding this disorder, you can read on the below link.

http://hemangiomaeducation.org/index.html

 

Or feel free to contact MAYA CLINIC / your child specialist

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Cough in Children: What to do ?

 

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Cough is the most common symptom and in all probabilities every child has had it once.  Important fact which I would like to share is that COUGH is a Protective reflex. It protects the spread of infection to airways in lung. But on certain occasions it needs a doctor’s visit; especially if the child is having breathing difficulty and not able to sleep at all at night.

Different types of Cough:

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Cough with barking sound:

Swelling in upper airway leads to barking cough i.e. swelling of Voice box (Larynx) or Windpipe (trachea) or whole of upper part in LTB (Croup). Croup is due to viral infection in most cases. It is sudden in onset and severe in younger kids with narrow airway. It has harsh, noisy character which occurs when child inhales.

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Cough with whistling (or musical sound):

When lower airway is involved it leads to musical or whistling sound. It can be sometimes audible from a distance too. Common causes are viral infections like Bronchiolitis in young children, WALRI & Asthma. Foreign body is also important cause in kids.

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Cough with Fever:

Cough associated with mild fever & running nose is mostly due to common cold. But if cough is associated with high grade fever and no running nose and breathing difficulty than Pneumonia needs to be ruled out. You should visit your child specialist soon.

 

Cough with vomiting:

Post tussive vomiting is very common in young children and should not be a cause a worry. As babies are not able to throw up mucus and secretions from lungs naturally by taking deep breath voluntarily, so vomiting with cough might relieve the child for some times . It occurs as cough can sometimes trigger gag reflex.

Persistent Cough:

Viral infections can last for 2 weeks. Children with asthma, allergies or chronic infections or repeated viral infections can cause persistent cough but if cough persists for more than 3 weeks than doctor visit is needed.

Prevent triggers: Cold Air, perfumes, Smoke, ice creams etc can start or prolong the cough in children.

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When is the right time to visit Child Specialist?

If your child is having any of the below features, you should contact your pediatrician

  • Fast breathing
  • Deep and effortful breathing
  • Bluish color on lips, face
  • High grade fever and no running nose
  • Young child less than 3 months old especially with fever
  • Special sound with cough. Eg Whopping cough, Stridor (noisy), musical sounds/ wheezing etc
  • Blood with cough
  • Child is very weak, irritable and cranky
  • Poor oral intake, decrease urine output and looks dehydrated.

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Expected treatment from Doctor?

Listening to the sound of cough can help doctor, besides History and clinical examinations.

Doctor should try to find the cause of cough and treat that. If it is viral infection, it will have its own course and will settle down with time only (usually around 2 weeks in children). No need of any cough syrup (medicine), unless the cough is disturbing sleep or child is coughing continuously for few minutes at a stretch and his life is disturbed significantly.

If cough medications are to be used than it is better to avoid combination drugs.

 cough-remedy-poster

Home remedies:

  • Honey at bed time can have soothing effect and prevent cough.
  • Warm milk with Haldi
  • Warm saline gargles
  • Steam inhalation can be given in certain cases. But in small kids , need to be very careful that they do not get burn injury with hot water. Best way is to generate steam via hot water in closed room or bathroom. And sit with your child in that room and let the child breath normally.
  • Cool-mist humidifier in your child’s bedroom might help with sleep.
  • Keep child well hydrate
  • Avoid over the counter medications and give them only on prescription of a child specialist.

 

Feel free to contact MAYA CLINiC for any queries.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

 

Breath-holding spells

Breath-holding spells

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Your child cries, and stops breathing, and almost turns blue. It is one of the scariest situations for parents. The episode seems life threatening but in reality, it is relatively benign (not serious). And it does not pose any risk to the health of the child.

It’s a very challenging situation for the caregiver, and needs to be handled with patience rather than panic. One thing which parents need to understand is that breath-holding spells are an involuntary reflex. The episodes usually last less than a minute (though it may seem like ages to the anxious parent), and after that the child regains consciousness and starts breathing normally.

Usual age of occurrence is from 6 months to 6 years but they can occur at earlier age too. Few cases have been reported in newborns also, but in such small babies, other factors need to be ruled out. Family history may be positive in some cases.

Episodes typically start after excessive crying.  Children usually outgrow this disease by the time they start going to school.

Breath holding spells are of two types

  • Cyanotic:  Child turns blue in face
  • Pallid:       Child turns pale, almost white

In both the cases the child stops breathing and loses consciousness for few seconds. In very rare cases seizures might occur, but these are benign and do not cause any long term harm.

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What to do if your child stopped breathing during a spell

  • Stay calm
  • While your child is in the brief unconscious phase, just check she is safe and has fallen flat on the ground
  • Remove any sharp object in vicinity which can cause damage to child.
  • Once she is awake, try to appear normal and unaffected by the whole thing.

When to See your Child Doctor

  • After first episode
  • These episodes are not harmful but proper check up and investigations might be needed to rule out underlying medical condition.
  • Consult your child specialist to determine triggers of spell and to know how to prevent future spells and how to deal with it if it happens again.

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How to prevent Future Spells

  • Try to prevent the trigger
  • You should try not to give in to tantrums of children
  • No special attention after spells, otherwise in a way we might reinforce the behavior.
  • Iron supplementation might help in decreasing the incidence, more so if child is anemic.
  • Reassure yourself and find a way to discipline your child in a way that does not provoke another spell
  • As the child grows old he develops better coping skills
  • With experience, courage and guidance from your child specialist you should be able to provide a safe and structured environment to your child.
  • In some cases when episodes are very frequent, some medications (like Piracetam) might be needed. But in most cases it can be avoided.

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Condition that should be ruled out

  • Heart conditions with rhythm disturbances like Arrhythmia etc via ECG or ECHO.
  • Anemia (Get Hemoglobin done)
  • Seizure like episodes and Seizure Disorder.

 

Feel free to contact Maya Clinic for any queries or discuss with your pediatrician.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Preterm babies; what to expect?

Preterm Baby

 

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Q: What does “preterm” mean?

A baby is born “preterm” if he or she is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. Normally, a pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks.

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Q: Why do preterm babies need special care?

Preterm babies are not fully prepared to live in the world outside their mother’s womb. They get cold more easily and need more help to feed than full-term babies. Because their bodies are not yet fully developed, they may have problems breathing and can also suffer from other complications including infections.

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Q: How many babies are born preterm every year and where?

About 15 million babies are born preterm each year; that is more than one in ten babies worldwide. 60% are of them are born in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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Q: How many preterm babies could be saved?

Around 1 million preterm babies die each year, and countless others suffer some type of lifelong physical, neurological, or educational disability, often at great cost to families and society. An estimated three-quarters of these preterm babies could survive if they had access to proven and often inexpensive care.

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Q: What health challenges do preterm babies face?

The earlier in a pregnancy that babies are born, the less prepared their bodies are for the outside world. They need special care to overcome the following challenges:

Staying warm: Preterm babies lose body heat more easily, putting them at risk of life-threatening hypothermia. They need extra energy and care to stay warm and grow.

Feeding: Preterm babies can have trouble feeding because the coordinated suck and swallow reflex is not yet fully developed. They may need additional support for feeding.

Breathing: Many preterm babies start breathing on their own when they are born, but others need to be resuscitated. If the lungs are not fully developed and lack surfactant (a substance that helps keep the lungs expanded), preterm babies may have difficulty breathing. Sometimes, premature babies that start off breathing are not strong enough to continue on their own. They exhaust themselves and may stop breathing (apnoea).

Infections: Severe infections are more common among preterm babies. Their immune systems are not yet fully developed, and they have a higher risk of dying if they get an infection.

Brain: Preterm babies are at risk of bleeding in the brain, during birth and in the first few days after birth; about 1 in 5 babies weighing less than 2kg have this problem. Preterm babies can also have brain injuries from a lack of oxygen. Bleeding or lack of oxygen to the brain can result in result in cerebral palsy, developmental delays and learning difficulties.

Eyes: Preterm babies’ eyes are not ready for the outside world. They can be damaged by abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina. The condition is usually more severe in very premature babies and if they are given too-high a level of oxygen. This can result in visual impairment or blindness.

Q: What are the consequences of preterm birth later in life?

Preterm babies are at risk of developing disabilities that will affect them for their entire lives. The extent to which this will affect their life strongly depends on how early they were born, the quality of care they received during and around birth and the days and weeks that follow.

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Q: What are the precautions to be taken at home after discharge of preterm baby from nursery?

  • You should keep in regular touch with your Pediatrician/Child Specialist.
  • Develpomental checkups regularly as advised
  • Schedule eye examinations for ROP
  • Baby will take extra time to develop skills

 

For any queries feel free to contact us at Maya Clinic.

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“ Healthy Kids, Happy Family “

 

Could my child have Diabetes ?

Diabetes in Children

     signs

Diabetes Mellitus (DM); name itself is  fearful and more so if in context to children. It is a metabolic disorder with high blood sugar level. Major Symptoms are increased urination, increased thirst and hunger. Insulin is the only way by which body can use sugar. If insulin decreases sugar rises.

diabetes-mellitus-type-1

4 types: three most common types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. 4th is due rare genetic disorders

Most common in children is DM type 1 (Insulin dependent, IDDM or Juvenile diabetes).

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Type 1DM:

 

It is an autoimmune disorder in which body starts to destroy its own cell (beta cells of pancreas that makes insulin). Pancreas loses its ability to produce Insulin.

Type 1 is less common than type 2 DM.

2 main factors: genetics and the environment (certain viruses, toxins which can trigger autoimmune response).

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Type 2 DM:

 

More common in adults but nowadays seen in children too.

Pancreas still makes insulin but is not effective (Insulin resistance)

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It is hard to diagnose in adolescent; as some cases are asymptomatic.

Lifestyle changes (which are leading to unhealthy gain in weight) like

  • Decrease physical activities
  • More screen time
  • Fast food

It can be managed with Exercise and change in diet but in some cases medicine or Insulin injections are needed.

Gestational DM is diabetes that develops during pregnancy.

 

SYMTPOMS:

symptoms-of-diabetes

 

Chart is depicting few signs and symptoms of adults too.

Early

  • frequent peeing (urination) in large amounts (polyuria)
  • increase in thirst (polydipsia)
  • dry mouth or throat
  • weight loss
  • increase in appetite (polyphagia)
  • feeling tired or weak
  • diaper rash that doesn’t improve with medicated cream

s,s

Late

  • weight loss
  • stomach aches
  • nausea and vomiting
  • heavy, rapid breathing (Kussmaul breathing)
  • drowsiness

 

Diagnosis:

Random Blood sugar level > 200mg/dl

Urine test for ketones

It will need further evaluation under guidance of child specialist or Pediatric endocrinologist.

Complications:

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Life changes full circle at the time when diagnosis is confirmed. 

Coping with the diagnosis is also difficult to start with as parents are in denial /shock. It usually is followed by sadness/fear/anxiety. Some will have feeling of guilt and some will have anger.

diabetespic

Parents (and children as well):

  • Need to learn the skills needed to take care of child (injection insulin, measure blood sugar at home etc)
  • Face Emotional Disturbance
  • Life style changes (dietary changes, need to count calories.)

 

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Treatment

Aim:

  • Maintain the blood sugar level as close to normal as possible at all times to avoid complications.
  • Coping well with disease and trying to have a healthy and productive life.

 

Basic treatment of type 1 diabetes:

  • Insulin ( via injections or pump)
  • Balanced meal with help of dietician
  • Monitoring of blood sugar levels
  • Regular check up

Nursing Intervention Nursing Care Plan for Children with Diabetes Mellitus

 

Basic Treatment Type 2 diabetes:

What-causes-diabetes

  • Healthy Lifestyle
  • Increased physical activity
  • Balanced food
  • Weight loss
  • In some cases medications

 

Dietician: Proper Meal plan is needed to have a calorie count.

Guidelines_for_Treating_Type_2_Diabetes_in_Kids_

Growth and Development should not be affected and child should be able to live a healthy life.

prevention at school

School life should also be not affected.

For any queries refer to your child specialist or Pediatrics endocrinologist. Feel free to contact Maya Clinic .

Regards

Dr Rahul varma

“Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

  

Thalassemia in children

Thalassemia

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Overview:

It is genetic disorder of blood in which abnormal Hemoglobin is made leading to decrease in oxygen carring capacity of red blood cell.  RBC (red blood cells) are destroyed at faster rate leading to anemia and need for repeated blood transfusion.

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This inherited disorder is carried in genes and passed on from one generation to next generation. People who are Carrier may have no disease but when both parents are carrier, it can pass on to children.

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2 types of Thalassemias are there: Alpha and Beta.

We will discuss beta thalassemia in detail.

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There are 3 types of beta thalassemia.

  1. Beta thalassemia minor, or beta thalassemia trait, happens when one of the beta globin genes is mutated. Milder form, usually needing no treatment
  2. Beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anemia) happens when both of the beta globin genes are mutated. Most Serious and can be life threatening if repeated blood transfusion not given
  3. Beta thalassemia intermedia may also occur when both of the beta globin genes are mutated, but less severe. Usually moderate symptoms and sometimes need blood transfusion.

Symptoms:

13Beta Thalassemia Signs Symptoms Treatment

Common symptoms of beta thalassemia include:

  • fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath
  • a pale appearance or a yellow color to the skin (jaundice)
  • Anemia
  • Poor growth
  • irritability
  • deformities of the facial bones
  •  abdominal swelling (liver and spleen enlarged)
  • Delayed puberty
  • Repeated infections

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Diagnosis

CBC, Hb Electrophoresis

Prevention:

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Both parents should be tested for Thalassemia before or during early pregnancy. If both parents are carriers of the beta thalassemia disorder, doctors will need to conduct more tests on a fetus before birth(CVS / Amniocentesis).

celebs-thalassaemia-day-05 

People who carry beta thalassemia genes should seek Gentic counseling, if they’re considering having children.

 

Treatment

Children with Thalassemia major require life-long , ongoing medical care which include blood transfusions.

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Standard Treatment:

  • Repeated Blood Transfusions
  • Iron Chelation Therapy
  • Floic acid supplements

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Cure:    Stem cell Transplant with HLA matched donor

Future:  Gene Therapy

Research is going on. It may be possible to insert normal hemoglobin gene into stem cells in bone marrow. This will allow children with thalassemias to make their own healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin.

get-yourself

Regards

Dr. Rahul Varma

www.mayaclinic.in

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Immunize for a healthy future: know, check, protect.

Immunization week 2014

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World Immunization Week – celebrated in the last week of April (24-30) – aims to promote one of the world’s most powerful tools for health – the use of vaccines to protect people of all ages against disease.

The theme of the World Immunization Week 2014 campaign is “Are you up-to-date?”. The slogan and calls to action to be used on global materials are “Immunize for a healthy future – Know. Check. Protect.”

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Know, Check, Protect

 

know

Know

  • why you need to get vaccinated
  • which vaccines you need
  • how, where and when you should get vaccinated
  • where you can go to find out more

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Check

  • whether you and family have had all the vaccines you need
  • when you need booster doses
  • whether you need any vaccines before travelling

 

protect 

Protect

  • yourself and your family: get vaccinated

 

Details regarding latest Immunization schedule in INDIA.

http://www.iapindia.org/IMM%20Schedule.pdf

IMM-33-1

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“Healthy kids, Happy Family”