Tag Archives: child specialist in indirapuram

Smartphones and Tablets are not meant for babies; they interfere with optimum brain development. Read on to know more

mayaclinic-smarthphone -baby

Smartphones and tablets are not meant for babies (< 2 years)

In today’s environment we all can see small babies and toddlers playing with phones. Whether you are at mall, driving in car, waiting somewhere , smartphones have become like babysitter for many parents. Parents feel excited to see their small babies handling touch screen phones so efficiently. Touch screen smartphones with their great picture quality, colorful images and good sounds appeals to babies. But are they really good for optimum brain development for young kids?

Answer:

Till now there is NO research done to know the connection between infant learning and smartphones. For older children with use of interactive elements it may help in learning concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect relations. But for small babies who are still in very young age of brain development, it’s long term effect is not known.

 baby-on-smartphone

Recommendations:

All the doctors are of the opinion to reduce screen time for small babies. Screen time includes time spent on TV, videos, laptops, phones etc. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has made a clear stance that “NO screen time for kids less than 2 years”. Main reason being association of Language learning delays, poor reading skills and short term memory are seen more often in children with more screen time.

Facts:

Children learn better from real life experiences rather than screen time. It is more so if activities involve moving and doing. Various surveys and studies show that on an average 12-month-old baby is exposed to up to 2 hours of screen time a day.

Young age (< 2 years) is very critical for learning of new concepts. Most of the learning involve 3 dimensional Sensory- motor experiences which cannot be replicated on a 2 dimensional screen. Active play involves better hand – eye coordination , fine motor skill development.

Example:  Compare a ball in real life and a ball on Screen.

Infants are still developing concept of 3 dimensional vision. For a small baby  watching on screen a BALL is just a flat, shaded circle. In real life if we roll a ball across floor it proceeds in a single motions and gradually slows and stops finally. But on Screen same action cannot be done; it will be broken up. Small babies may stare at bright colors and motions on screen but their brain is not capable of making sense or meaning out of these amazing pictures. By  the age 2 years brain has developed enough and baby can understand things better. Due to all this confusion it is better to avoid screen time in small babies.

After a certain age technology and screen time can be used judicially for better interactive teaching. Older children can do lot more and screen time can help them in understanding concept better along with reading from textbook. But not for very small babies.

Another excuse which most parents give is that there baby will never eat food if we take phones out of there life. Just to remind them that before invention of smart phone kids used to eat well.  And Honestly speaking we have started spending more time on social networking like facebook and whats app which have lead to more exposure in children. Because it’s we who cannot live without phone rather then kids.

Regards

Dr Rahul varma

 

 

You can save a life by giving Hands-only CPR !

 

  CPR (mayaclinic.in)

“Anyone can learn CPR and everyone should”

  • Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many of these lost lives can be saved if a person nearby knew how to do CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) or simply hands- only CPR.
  • You will be surprised to know that it is easy to perform and can be done by anyone. There is no need for any knowledge reading science i.e.  it can be done even by an illiterates . It just need strong will on your part to know it.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack.
  1. Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when electrical impulses in the heart become rapid or chaotic, which causes the heart to suddenly stop beating.
  2. A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle is blocked. A heart attack may cause cardiac arrest.

 hands-only-cpr

Reasons why you should know it

  • It saves many lives should be a good enough reason for you to learn it. Chances of a person surviving a sudden cardiac arrest increase significantly if CPR is started early. Effective bystander CPR provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival, but unfortunately very few cardiac arrest victims get CPR from a bystander in India.
  • More than 80% of heart attack occurs at home, so chances are you will be saving a person’s life that you love. Put very simply: The life you save with CPR is mostly likely to be someone you love.
  • CPR is not done by many due to various concerns like doing harm to person, doing harm to oneself, reason of hygiene, chances of getting infected or getting into legal hassles. But once you know the proper technique you will realize, you can only do well to a dying person without risking your health. Don’t be afraid; your actions can only help.
  •  Giving mouth to mouth resuscitation is not necessary: Most common reason why people are afraid of giving CPR is that they might have to give mouth to mouth breath. Guidelines in 2010 changed which clearly says that without formal training you should attempt hands-only CPR.  I strongly feel, all of us should know how to do chest compression even without mouth breathing. In many adults hands-only CPR has been found to be equally effective. (Although in children it is different and reasons of sudden cardiac arrest are different)
  • Hand-only CPR is very easy to learn: It can be easily performed
  • Unnecessary deaths can be prevented which occur due to poor response to cardiac emergency.
  • You can learn how to give Hands-Only CPR by watching a simple one-minute video at heart.org/cpr. (In India, call 102 instead of 911)

cpr

Once you have learned CPR, You can teach others too. Give 5 people you care about the power to save lives by equipping them to act quickly in a crisis.

Don’t be afraid; your actions can only help.

mayaclinic.in

If you see an unresponsive adult who is not breathing, call 102(call for help from others nearby) and push hard and fast on the center of the chest.

But before starting CPR make sure your life is not in danger (eg. No moving vehicle nearby, no chances of accident)

SEE A VIDEO, SAVE A LIFE
You can prepare yourself to act in an emergency by simply viewing the Hands-Only™ CPR instructional video(In India, call 102 instead of 911)

correct posture while CPR

The American Heart Association has recommended Hands-Only  CPR for adults since 2008.

Feel free to contact any nearby hospital to learn CPR.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Congenital Hypothyriodism

Can my child have thyroid related problem at birth? YES, read on.

Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH)

Congenital Hypothyriodism    

Hypothyroidism is condition in which thyroid gland does not produce thyroid hormone in sufficient quantity. And if this condition is present right from birth, it is called Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH).

Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) is most common preventable cause of Mental retardation in children.

It is also known as Cretinism, Endemic Cretinism (Iodine Deficiency), Congenital Myxedema.

Hypothyroidism is usually an age related change seen in older people, especially ladies. However its incidence is on a rise in younger population too.

physiology of CH

Newborn babies are also vulnerable; more so because there are no specific symptoms which can lead to early diagnosis. Because of this reason most of the private hospitals are now doing cord blood testing (Newborn Screening) to rule out thyroid related illnesses.

Good news for parents is that it can be diagnosed easily by testing (Newborn screening) and can be treated comfortable; so that child can live a normal life just like any other baby.

Hypothyroid in children

Signs and symptoms

Most of the children are asymptomatic (due to trans-placental transfer of maternal thyroid hormones)

If symptomatic; then following are the features

  • Prolong Jaundice during first few weeks of life (earliest sign)
  • During first month of life there is feeding difficulties (Sluggishness , sometimes even choking spells during nursing)
  • Lack of interest, Somnolence (sleepy all the time), large head size (due to myxedema).
  • Breathing difficulties due to large protruded tongue, also noisy breathing, nasal obstruction
  • During 1st year of life babies are sleepy all the time, have poor appetite, cries very little and sluggish most of the time.
  • Large protruded abdomen mostly has umbilical hernia.
  • A puffy appearance to the face. Dull looking
  • Cold to touch and mottled skin, edema of genital region and extremities
  • Constipation not responding to treatment
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Anemia can be there
  • Developmental delay
  • Slow heart rate

CH-mayaclinic

In children and teenage it can lead to

  • Poor growth leading to in short stature
  • Delayed eruption of teeth
  • Delayed puberty
  • Poor mental development

anatomy of thyroid gland

Thyroid gland is a butterfly- shaped organ at base of the neck.

 Hypothyroid

Causes:

  • Absent (agenesis) or (abnormal location) ectopic in location or underdeveloped
  • Genetic causes:  about 15% of cases are thought to be inherited
  • Iodine deficiency in mothers
  • Use of anti thyroid medicines in mothers

 Diagnosis: It is done by newborn screening in most cases

newborn screening

 Management:

  • Hormone replacement is the treatment (Safe and easy in children too)
  • L-thyroxine tablets are small and can be crushed into food or dissolved into a small amount of formula, juice or other liquid. No liquid formulation is available.    thyroid_treatment
  • Child specialist along with Pediatric Endocrinologist will treat children with thyroid or any other hormonal problems
  • Treatment to be started as soon as diagnosis made; since damage to brain once done can never be reversed
  • Overdosing of L-thyroxine in children can lead to
    • Faster heart rate
    • Loose motions
    • Poor sleep
    • Shakiness or tremors
    •  Soy-based formulas and Iron supplements can reduce the absorption of thyroid hormone.
    • Regular monitoring of child every few months
    • Developmental assessment

Congenital Hypothyroidism, before and after treatment (mayaclinic.in)

FAQ

Q. My child is too small? What if I do not treat my child?

Ans. It can lead to Mental retardation and developmental delay in children. Damage once done can never be reversed.

Q. Is it genetic disease?

Ans. About 15% cases are inherited and genetic counseling need to be done. Genetic testing can be done using blood sample.

Q. What are the tests need to be done to confirm it?

Ans.  If newborn screening is positive:

  • then blood tests are repeated after 72 hours of life which includes TSH, T4,T3.
  • Thyroid Ultrasound and Scan need to be done in certain cases

diagnosis of CH

Q. Can it be diagnosed during pregnancy?

Ans. NO

Q. Can elder siblings also have it?

Ans. If elder siblings are growing well, healthy and developmentally normal. Most likely the answer is NO.

For Any queries related thyroid disease or you want to discuss any other health related issues feel free to contact MAYA CLINIC. Or discuss with your child specialist.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Fever, chills, headache during rainy Season? It could be Leptospirosis!

 

 Fever, chills, headache during rainy Season? It could be Leptospirosis!

 02-leptospirosis2

Leptospirosis is most common zoonotic (Spreading from animals) disease worldwide. It is still widely overlooked and under reported.

Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.

It spreads via urine of infected animals which can get into water and soil and survive there for weeks.

 Leptospira_interrogans_strain_RGA_01

Animal which commonly causes this disease are cattles, rodents, dogs, horses, pigs etc. Animals might be asymptomatic and continue to excrete the bacteria into environment.

EID_Leptospirosis_AcsB_1

It Spread to Human via

  • contact with urine (or other body fluids except saliva) from infected animals
  •  Ingestion of contaminated food or water
  • Direct contact over cut or wound (eg splash of infected water over eyes, nose or broken skin & mucus membrane)

 

Symptoms

Leptospirosis has a wide range of symptoms which could be similar to other illness as well. But common ones are:

leptospirosis

  • High fever, with or without chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches, body ache
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes)
  • Red eyes
  • Abdominal Pain, Diarrhea
  • Rash

Incubation period ranges from2 days to 4 weeks. Can occur in 2 phases: 1st with acute febrile illness followed by more severe involving multi organ dysfunction “Weil’s Disease”

 model_lepto

Who is at Risk?

  • Occupational hazard eg farmers, mine workers, sewer workers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians and animal caretakers
  • Recreational hazard eg swimming in contaminated water , camping outdoor sports. More common in tropical and temperate climate
  • Incidence of Leptospirosis infection among urban children appears to be increasing.

 lepto-infection

How to diagnose?

It is completely curable if diagnosed early and treatment started on time.

Consult your doctor immediately. Doctor will order few tests which may include dark field microscopy, Culture, leptospirosis Serolgy (IgG& IgM) and PCR.

How to manage?

Avoid self medication

Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin, which should be given early in the course of the disease. It should be taken only after consulting doctor, in appropriate doses and for proper duration.

Intravenous antibiotics may be required for persons with more severe symptoms.

 1

How we can prevent it?

  • Clean Water (boiled, RO )
  • Protective gears: while swimming
  • Protective clothing or footwear
  • Cover your would properly and avoid contact with contaminated water, taking shower in monsoon rain, going to river banks
  • Take care of pets. Consult vet doc
  • Clean your home regularly of rats and other animals

For further reading click on the link below

http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/topics/Communicable_Diseases_Surveillance_and_response_CDS_leptospirosis-Fact_Sheet.pdf?ua=1

Feel free to discuss with your doctor or call us at MAYA CLINIC. we will be happy to respond back.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

nose bleed (mayaclinic.in)

How to manage child with nose bleed (Epistaxis) ?

 

Epistaxis (Nosebleed): What to do?

nose bleed (mayaclinic.in)

 

One of the most frightening sites for a parent is to see their child bleed from nose. But you can rest assure that in most cases it is not serious. Most of them can be treated at home.

 nosebleed

It occurs due to bleeding from small vessels of nose. It happens as a result of break in the tissue lining of nose (mostly in front part or “anterior” of nose).

 Epistaxis Management        images

Cause:

  • Irritation and lack of moisture in the nasal membrane
  • Dry air or warm air can lead to crusting of membrane inside nose and it may cause itching which can lead to scratching or nose picking. It in turn leads to bleeding.
  • Allergic conditions and cold
  • Repeated nose blowing
  • Excessive use of antihistamines and Decongestant medicines can also lead to it.
  • Serious causes: Head Injury
  • Bleeding disorders

 t3

In some cases bleeding can occur from posterior part of nose which can be dangerous. It leads to flow of blood down the back of throat.

Frequent or long time bleeding if occurs; you should consult doctor.

 t7

What can be done at home?

 t 1 

t2

 

  • Do not Panic and remain Calm
  • Make your child sit in your lap and tilt his or her head slightly forward.
  • Gently pinch nose with clean cloth.
  • Keep applying pressure on nose for about 10 minutes. If we stop too soon bleeding may start again
  • If child is leaning back, it may cause blood to flow down the throat which may in turn cause gagging, coughing or vomiting.
  • Discourage child to blow nose, picking, rubbing.
  • Ice pack on forehead might help.

  t4

When to call doctor?

  • Frequent nose bleed
  • Long time duration of bleeding or difficult to control bleeding
  • Foreign body in nose
  • Bleeding from any other site as well
  • Associated symptoms like fever, rashes etc
  • Easy bruising tendency
  • Medication: recently added or long term

t5

Urgent Attention needed if:

  • Bleeding is heavy
  • Associated with weakness or dizziness
  • Head injury or history of fall
  • Bleeding continues after two attempts of applying pressure for 10 minutes each

 m1

 

Prevention:

  • Avoid nose picking (Keep finger nails trimmed most of the time)
  • Use saline nasal spray frequently during illness
  • Vaporizer or steam helps
  • Protective gears while playing or driving to prevent injury

 

Even after taking all the precautions, sometimes child starts bleeding without any obvious reason. So do not panic as most of them are harmless and can be stopped easily.

Discuss with your doctor (Child specialist/ ENT specialist) or contact us at Maya Clinic.

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

” Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

 

dengue-fever heading

Want to stay safe from Dengue Fever? Read on

 Dengue Fever

  dengue-fever heading

Dengue Fever as we all know spread from bite of an infected Mosquito. It has 4 serotypes. It can cause very severe life threatening illness; however most cases are milder in nature.

Huge number of cases has been reported worldwide (50-100 million cases every year worldwide).

mosquito_0

Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedea Mosquito. It bites during day time only. Outbreaks can occur at anytime, however rainy season with high humidity increases changes of transmission.

Symptoms:

Occurs after 4-10 days of mosquito bite and symptoms can last from 2 to 7 days usually.

2_1 

High grade Fever associated with atleast 2 of the below mentioned features should raise suspicion of Dengue Fever:

  • Headaches
  • Body ache.  esp pain behind eyes
  • Joint Pain, bone pain, Muscular pains
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rashes (usually extensive red colored all over body)
  • Itching

rash 2 rash

Most crucial Phase of Dengue illness occurs once fever subsides; i.e. at deffervescence of Fever as most of the complications arises at this time. At this time platelet counts start decreasing along with rise in Hematocrit values. 3rd space losing occurs, so it is very important to prevent dehydration and let your child have PLENTY OF FLUIDS.

 dengue-diagram

Severe Cases (also called dengue hemorrhagic fever):

Special attention needs to be given to these warning signs as it could lead to severe dengue:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Bleeding from any site eg gums, blood in vomiting etc
  • Rapid breathing
  • Fatigue/ restlessness
  • Altered sensorium

 download

Treatment:

  • At present no vaccine is available.
  • No specific medication for dengue fever.
  • Mainstay of treatment is supportive
  • Patients should seek medical advice, rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  •  Paracetamol (Crocin) is the drug of choice for Fever. Other medications like aspirin or ibuprofen should be avoided as it increases the risk of bleeding.
  • Vital Monitoring along with blood test to have a look at Hematocrit along with platelet count.
  • Platelet transfusion in some cases

Infection with one strain will provide life-time protection only against that particular strain. However, it is still possible to become infected by other strains and develop into severe dengue. Usually re-infection cases are severe.

With proper medical care and early recognition, case-fatality rates are below 1%.

  sintomas-dengue-prevencion

What should be done by Patients and Relatives?

  • If you suspect you have dengue you first need to avoid panic and consult a doctor soon.
  • Drink plenty of fluids, watch for urine output & watch for bleeding from any site.
  • For diagnosis, your doctor will
    • Evaluate your signs and symptoms
    • Test your blood for evidence of a dengue virus using NS1 Antigen or serology test (IgG& IgM).

 know_about_dengue_10

How Dengue is spread:

  • Bite from infected mosquito (Aedes aegypti)
  • Day time biting by this mosquito (esp early morning & evening)
  • Does not spread by contact

 prevent 2

Mosquitoes  breading Ground:

  • Clear water in nearby areas esp water filled containers etc.
  • Rest Indoors in dark areas like closet, under beds, behind curtain etc.

   prevent 

Preventive measures:

  • Source reduction: eliminate mosquitoe’s egg laying sites.  Examples of the following habitats are listed:
  • Indoor, Ant traps, Flower vases and saucers
  • Water storage tank (domestic drinking water, bathroom, etc…)
  • Plastic containers, Bottles, Outdoor, Discarded bottles and tins
  • Discarded tyres, Artificial containers, Tree holes, potholes, construction sites, Drums for collecting rainwater
  • Shells, husks, pods from trees, Leaf axils of various plants
  • Community participation is the key to dengue prevention. As every household aims to reduce vector density, the transmission rate will decrease or maybe even stop.
  • Protecting yourself from mosquito bites: It can be done by using
    • Long-sleeved clothing and mosquito repellents are the most viable options.
    • Window and door screens, air conditioning reduces the risk of mosquitoes coming into contact with the household members.
    • Mosquito nets (and/or insecticide-treated nets) will also provide additional protection to people sleeping during the day, or protect against other mosquitoes which can bite at night (such as malaria).
    • Household insecticides aerosols, mosquito coils or other insecticide vaporizers maybe also reduce biting activity.

 outbreak

 

 

Feel free to contact your doctor for detail or contact us at MAYA CLINIC.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

 

Is your child Anemic?

Is your child Anemic?

 P_iron1

 

Anemia is very commonly seen in young children who are mainly on milk based diet (As Milk is poor source of Iron). Breast milk has small quantity of Iron but it is readily absorbed in body; so for first 6 months of life Iron deficiency is not prominent. But after 6 months of life when top milk is started, it leads to Anemia if proper Iron supplementation or appropriate weaning food is not given.

That is the very reason you will see all the infant formula feeds and cereals fortified with Iron these days. As Iron is needed to make Hemoglobin; which is oxygen carrying component of red blood cells (RBCs).

 anemia image

 What is the right Quantity of Iron needed by my Kid?

  • Birth till 6months: adequate iron is there in mother’s breast milk. No need for supplementation unless baby is preterm or suffering from any illness.
  • 7 -12 months: 11mg per day. It can be given by using infant formula feeds or cereals fortified with Iron or using Iron supplement drops.
  • Toddlers: 7 mg/day; Kids aged 4-8 years need around 10 mg per day. Older Kids between 9- 13 years need around 8 mg/day.
  • Adolescent boys need 11 mg /day and girls 15 mg/day of Iron. Girls need more as in adolescence more blood loss during menstruation.
  • Special need in athletes and children involving extreme physical activities need even more iron.

 

How deficiency Develops?

  • Infants and young children mainly on cow’s milk develop iron deficiency as cow’s milk is low in iron and it also makes child less hungry and less likelyhood of child eating iron rich foods.
  • Cow’s milk also decreases absorption of Iron and can irritate lining of intestine causing minor intestinal bleeding and gradual loss of Iron in stool (pooty).
  • Worm Infestation
  • Iron requirement is more than normal in certain conditions like preterm babies, menstruating adolescent girls, children involved in extreme physical activities.

Signs-and-Symptoms-of-Anemia

 

What are Effects of iron Deficiency?

  • Irritability
  • Poor apetite
  • Poor growth and development
  • Behavioral problems
  • fatigue and weakness
  • pale skin and mucous membranes
  • rapid heartbeat or a new heart murmur (detected in an exam by a doctor)

If any of the above symptoms is there in your child consult your child specialist / Pediatrician and discuss regarding iron deficiency and need for supplementation. Excess of Iron is also bad , so it should be taken in appropriate doses only after consulting your child doctor.

 food

Common source of Iron in Diet

Both animal and plant source foods are available which are rich in Iron

  • red meat
  • dark poultry
  • tuna
  • salmon
  • eggs
  • tofu
  • enriched grains
  • dried beans and peas
  • dried fruits
  • leafy green vegetables
  • blackstrap molasses
  • iron-fortified breakfast cereals

 

62ee2d4759070a771885e332bbafb0fa

How to avoid Iron Deficiency in your child

  • Limit the intake of milk: 500 to 700 ml a day after 1 year of life and focus on staple diet.
  • Continue serving iron-fortified cereal until kids are 18-24 months old.
  • Avoid giving Iron supplements with milk as leads to poor absorption.
  • Serve iron-rich foods alongside foods containing vitamin C — such as tomatoes, broccoli, oranges, and strawberries — which improves the body’s absorption of iron.
  • Avoid serving coffee or tea at mealtime — both contain tannins that reduce iron absorption.

Once Iron is started in Iron deficient child; within 2 -3 days you will see significant improvement in diet.

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Cough in Children: What to do ?

 

 1

Cough is the most common symptom and in all probabilities every child has had it once.  Important fact which I would like to share is that COUGH is a Protective reflex. It protects the spread of infection to airways in lung. But on certain occasions it needs a doctor’s visit; especially if the child is having breathing difficulty and not able to sleep at all at night.

Different types of Cough:

5

Cough with barking sound:

Swelling in upper airway leads to barking cough i.e. swelling of Voice box (Larynx) or Windpipe (trachea) or whole of upper part in LTB (Croup). Croup is due to viral infection in most cases. It is sudden in onset and severe in younger kids with narrow airway. It has harsh, noisy character which occurs when child inhales.

download

Cough with whistling (or musical sound):

When lower airway is involved it leads to musical or whistling sound. It can be sometimes audible from a distance too. Common causes are viral infections like Bronchiolitis in young children, WALRI & Asthma. Foreign body is also important cause in kids.

4

Cough with Fever:

Cough associated with mild fever & running nose is mostly due to common cold. But if cough is associated with high grade fever and no running nose and breathing difficulty than Pneumonia needs to be ruled out. You should visit your child specialist soon.

 

Cough with vomiting:

Post tussive vomiting is very common in young children and should not be a cause a worry. As babies are not able to throw up mucus and secretions from lungs naturally by taking deep breath voluntarily, so vomiting with cough might relieve the child for some times . It occurs as cough can sometimes trigger gag reflex.

Persistent Cough:

Viral infections can last for 2 weeks. Children with asthma, allergies or chronic infections or repeated viral infections can cause persistent cough but if cough persists for more than 3 weeks than doctor visit is needed.

Prevent triggers: Cold Air, perfumes, Smoke, ice creams etc can start or prolong the cough in children.

3

When is the right time to visit Child Specialist?

If your child is having any of the below features, you should contact your pediatrician

  • Fast breathing
  • Deep and effortful breathing
  • Bluish color on lips, face
  • High grade fever and no running nose
  • Young child less than 3 months old especially with fever
  • Special sound with cough. Eg Whopping cough, Stridor (noisy), musical sounds/ wheezing etc
  • Blood with cough
  • Child is very weak, irritable and cranky
  • Poor oral intake, decrease urine output and looks dehydrated.

 2 

Expected treatment from Doctor?

Listening to the sound of cough can help doctor, besides History and clinical examinations.

Doctor should try to find the cause of cough and treat that. If it is viral infection, it will have its own course and will settle down with time only (usually around 2 weeks in children). No need of any cough syrup (medicine), unless the cough is disturbing sleep or child is coughing continuously for few minutes at a stretch and his life is disturbed significantly.

If cough medications are to be used than it is better to avoid combination drugs.

 cough-remedy-poster

Home remedies:

  • Honey at bed time can have soothing effect and prevent cough.
  • Warm milk with Haldi
  • Warm saline gargles
  • Steam inhalation can be given in certain cases. But in small kids , need to be very careful that they do not get burn injury with hot water. Best way is to generate steam via hot water in closed room or bathroom. And sit with your child in that room and let the child breath normally.
  • Cool-mist humidifier in your child’s bedroom might help with sleep.
  • Keep child well hydrate
  • Avoid over the counter medications and give them only on prescription of a child specialist.

 

Feel free to contact MAYA CLINiC for any queries.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

 

Breath-holding spells

Breath-holding spells

 best 

Your child cries, and stops breathing, and almost turns blue. It is one of the scariest situations for parents. The episode seems life threatening but in reality, it is relatively benign (not serious). And it does not pose any risk to the health of the child.

It’s a very challenging situation for the caregiver, and needs to be handled with patience rather than panic. One thing which parents need to understand is that breath-holding spells are an involuntary reflex. The episodes usually last less than a minute (though it may seem like ages to the anxious parent), and after that the child regains consciousness and starts breathing normally.

Usual age of occurrence is from 6 months to 6 years but they can occur at earlier age too. Few cases have been reported in newborns also, but in such small babies, other factors need to be ruled out. Family history may be positive in some cases.

Episodes typically start after excessive crying.  Children usually outgrow this disease by the time they start going to school.

Breath holding spells are of two types

  • Cyanotic:  Child turns blue in face
  • Pallid:       Child turns pale, almost white

In both the cases the child stops breathing and loses consciousness for few seconds. In very rare cases seizures might occur, but these are benign and do not cause any long term harm.

Breath-Holding-Spell-1024x614 

What to do if your child stopped breathing during a spell

  • Stay calm
  • While your child is in the brief unconscious phase, just check she is safe and has fallen flat on the ground
  • Remove any sharp object in vicinity which can cause damage to child.
  • Once she is awake, try to appear normal and unaffected by the whole thing.

When to See your Child Doctor

  • After first episode
  • These episodes are not harmful but proper check up and investigations might be needed to rule out underlying medical condition.
  • Consult your child specialist to determine triggers of spell and to know how to prevent future spells and how to deal with it if it happens again.

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How to prevent Future Spells

  • Try to prevent the trigger
  • You should try not to give in to tantrums of children
  • No special attention after spells, otherwise in a way we might reinforce the behavior.
  • Iron supplementation might help in decreasing the incidence, more so if child is anemic.
  • Reassure yourself and find a way to discipline your child in a way that does not provoke another spell
  • As the child grows old he develops better coping skills
  • With experience, courage and guidance from your child specialist you should be able to provide a safe and structured environment to your child.
  • In some cases when episodes are very frequent, some medications (like Piracetam) might be needed. But in most cases it can be avoided.

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Condition that should be ruled out

  • Heart conditions with rhythm disturbances like Arrhythmia etc via ECG or ECHO.
  • Anemia (Get Hemoglobin done)
  • Seizure like episodes and Seizure Disorder.

 

Feel free to contact Maya Clinic for any queries or discuss with your pediatrician.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

 

Preterm babies; what to expect?

Preterm Baby

 

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Q: What does “preterm” mean?

A baby is born “preterm” if he or she is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. Normally, a pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks.

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Q: Why do preterm babies need special care?

Preterm babies are not fully prepared to live in the world outside their mother’s womb. They get cold more easily and need more help to feed than full-term babies. Because their bodies are not yet fully developed, they may have problems breathing and can also suffer from other complications including infections.

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Q: How many babies are born preterm every year and where?

About 15 million babies are born preterm each year; that is more than one in ten babies worldwide. 60% are of them are born in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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Q: How many preterm babies could be saved?

Around 1 million preterm babies die each year, and countless others suffer some type of lifelong physical, neurological, or educational disability, often at great cost to families and society. An estimated three-quarters of these preterm babies could survive if they had access to proven and often inexpensive care.

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Q: What health challenges do preterm babies face?

The earlier in a pregnancy that babies are born, the less prepared their bodies are for the outside world. They need special care to overcome the following challenges:

Staying warm: Preterm babies lose body heat more easily, putting them at risk of life-threatening hypothermia. They need extra energy and care to stay warm and grow.

Feeding: Preterm babies can have trouble feeding because the coordinated suck and swallow reflex is not yet fully developed. They may need additional support for feeding.

Breathing: Many preterm babies start breathing on their own when they are born, but others need to be resuscitated. If the lungs are not fully developed and lack surfactant (a substance that helps keep the lungs expanded), preterm babies may have difficulty breathing. Sometimes, premature babies that start off breathing are not strong enough to continue on their own. They exhaust themselves and may stop breathing (apnoea).

Infections: Severe infections are more common among preterm babies. Their immune systems are not yet fully developed, and they have a higher risk of dying if they get an infection.

Brain: Preterm babies are at risk of bleeding in the brain, during birth and in the first few days after birth; about 1 in 5 babies weighing less than 2kg have this problem. Preterm babies can also have brain injuries from a lack of oxygen. Bleeding or lack of oxygen to the brain can result in result in cerebral palsy, developmental delays and learning difficulties.

Eyes: Preterm babies’ eyes are not ready for the outside world. They can be damaged by abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina. The condition is usually more severe in very premature babies and if they are given too-high a level of oxygen. This can result in visual impairment or blindness.

Q: What are the consequences of preterm birth later in life?

Preterm babies are at risk of developing disabilities that will affect them for their entire lives. The extent to which this will affect their life strongly depends on how early they were born, the quality of care they received during and around birth and the days and weeks that follow.

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Q: What are the precautions to be taken at home after discharge of preterm baby from nursery?

  • You should keep in regular touch with your Pediatrician/Child Specialist.
  • Develpomental checkups regularly as advised
  • Schedule eye examinations for ROP
  • Baby will take extra time to develop skills

 

For any queries feel free to contact us at Maya Clinic.

 

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“ Healthy Kids, Happy Family “