Tag Archives: Pediatrician Ghaziabad

How to manage Motion Sickness ?

Motion sickness

 

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Motion sickness as we all know happens while traveling. It is more common in young children.

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Motion sickness is very common while traveling especially to hilly areas. It can happen in any mode of transportation.

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Symptoms can start suddenly or gradually. Most common symptoms are Nausea, Vomiting, dizziness, sweating etc.  It usually stops as soon as we journey is completed. More frequent travelers have less of these symptoms.

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How to prevent it

  • Try to occupy the seat where minimum motion will be felt
  • Road Trip: better to sit in front seat or drive yourself
  • Train travel: Window seat and face forward
  • Plane travel: Seat over front edge of wing is better. Direct the air vent flow towards your face
  • By water (Ship): try to get front or middle cabin which is near the water level.

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Treatment options:

  • Focus on distant stationary object. Do not stress yourself and avoid reading.
  • Try to keep your head still
  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid spicy food or heavy meals
  • Avoid Alcohol
  • Drink carbonated beverage to help settle stomach or Eat dry crackers

 

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  • Drugs:
    • Antihistaminics: 30 to 60 minutes prior to journey
    • Transdermal Patch
    • Hyosine (Buscopan)
    • Phenergan (Promthazine)

These drugs should be given only under medical supervision after advice from your doctor.

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For detail reading log on to below mentioned link

http://motionsickness.org/

 

Dr Rahul varma

 

Cough in Children: What to do ?

 

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Cough is the most common symptom and in all probabilities every child has had it once.  Important fact which I would like to share is that COUGH is a Protective reflex. It protects the spread of infection to airways in lung. But on certain occasions it needs a doctor’s visit; especially if the child is having breathing difficulty and not able to sleep at all at night.

Different types of Cough:

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Cough with barking sound:

Swelling in upper airway leads to barking cough i.e. swelling of Voice box (Larynx) or Windpipe (trachea) or whole of upper part in LTB (Croup). Croup is due to viral infection in most cases. It is sudden in onset and severe in younger kids with narrow airway. It has harsh, noisy character which occurs when child inhales.

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Cough with whistling (or musical sound):

When lower airway is involved it leads to musical or whistling sound. It can be sometimes audible from a distance too. Common causes are viral infections like Bronchiolitis in young children, WALRI & Asthma. Foreign body is also important cause in kids.

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Cough with Fever:

Cough associated with mild fever & running nose is mostly due to common cold. But if cough is associated with high grade fever and no running nose and breathing difficulty than Pneumonia needs to be ruled out. You should visit your child specialist soon.

 

Cough with vomiting:

Post tussive vomiting is very common in young children and should not be a cause a worry. As babies are not able to throw up mucus and secretions from lungs naturally by taking deep breath voluntarily, so vomiting with cough might relieve the child for some times . It occurs as cough can sometimes trigger gag reflex.

Persistent Cough:

Viral infections can last for 2 weeks. Children with asthma, allergies or chronic infections or repeated viral infections can cause persistent cough but if cough persists for more than 3 weeks than doctor visit is needed.

Prevent triggers: Cold Air, perfumes, Smoke, ice creams etc can start or prolong the cough in children.

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When is the right time to visit Child Specialist?

If your child is having any of the below features, you should contact your pediatrician

  • Fast breathing
  • Deep and effortful breathing
  • Bluish color on lips, face
  • High grade fever and no running nose
  • Young child less than 3 months old especially with fever
  • Special sound with cough. Eg Whopping cough, Stridor (noisy), musical sounds/ wheezing etc
  • Blood with cough
  • Child is very weak, irritable and cranky
  • Poor oral intake, decrease urine output and looks dehydrated.

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Expected treatment from Doctor?

Listening to the sound of cough can help doctor, besides History and clinical examinations.

Doctor should try to find the cause of cough and treat that. If it is viral infection, it will have its own course and will settle down with time only (usually around 2 weeks in children). No need of any cough syrup (medicine), unless the cough is disturbing sleep or child is coughing continuously for few minutes at a stretch and his life is disturbed significantly.

If cough medications are to be used than it is better to avoid combination drugs.

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Home remedies:

  • Honey at bed time can have soothing effect and prevent cough.
  • Warm milk with Haldi
  • Warm saline gargles
  • Steam inhalation can be given in certain cases. But in small kids , need to be very careful that they do not get burn injury with hot water. Best way is to generate steam via hot water in closed room or bathroom. And sit with your child in that room and let the child breath normally.
  • Cool-mist humidifier in your child’s bedroom might help with sleep.
  • Keep child well hydrate
  • Avoid over the counter medications and give them only on prescription of a child specialist.

 

Feel free to contact MAYA CLINiC for any queries.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“Healthy Kids, Happy Family”

 

Thalassemia in children

Thalassemia

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Overview:

It is genetic disorder of blood in which abnormal Hemoglobin is made leading to decrease in oxygen carring capacity of red blood cell.  RBC (red blood cells) are destroyed at faster rate leading to anemia and need for repeated blood transfusion.

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This inherited disorder is carried in genes and passed on from one generation to next generation. People who are Carrier may have no disease but when both parents are carrier, it can pass on to children.

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2 types of Thalassemias are there: Alpha and Beta.

We will discuss beta thalassemia in detail.

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There are 3 types of beta thalassemia.

  1. Beta thalassemia minor, or beta thalassemia trait, happens when one of the beta globin genes is mutated. Milder form, usually needing no treatment
  2. Beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anemia) happens when both of the beta globin genes are mutated. Most Serious and can be life threatening if repeated blood transfusion not given
  3. Beta thalassemia intermedia may also occur when both of the beta globin genes are mutated, but less severe. Usually moderate symptoms and sometimes need blood transfusion.

Symptoms:

13Beta Thalassemia Signs Symptoms Treatment

Common symptoms of beta thalassemia include:

  • fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath
  • a pale appearance or a yellow color to the skin (jaundice)
  • Anemia
  • Poor growth
  • irritability
  • deformities of the facial bones
  •  abdominal swelling (liver and spleen enlarged)
  • Delayed puberty
  • Repeated infections

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Diagnosis

CBC, Hb Electrophoresis

Prevention:

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Both parents should be tested for Thalassemia before or during early pregnancy. If both parents are carriers of the beta thalassemia disorder, doctors will need to conduct more tests on a fetus before birth(CVS / Amniocentesis).

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People who carry beta thalassemia genes should seek Gentic counseling, if they’re considering having children.

 

Treatment

Children with Thalassemia major require life-long , ongoing medical care which include blood transfusions.

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Standard Treatment:

  • Repeated Blood Transfusions
  • Iron Chelation Therapy
  • Floic acid supplements

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Cure:    Stem cell Transplant with HLA matched donor

Future:  Gene Therapy

Research is going on. It may be possible to insert normal hemoglobin gene into stem cells in bone marrow. This will allow children with thalassemias to make their own healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin.

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Regards

Dr. Rahul Varma

www.mayaclinic.in

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Immunize for a healthy future: know, check, protect.

Immunization week 2014

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World Immunization Week – celebrated in the last week of April (24-30) – aims to promote one of the world’s most powerful tools for health – the use of vaccines to protect people of all ages against disease.

The theme of the World Immunization Week 2014 campaign is “Are you up-to-date?”. The slogan and calls to action to be used on global materials are “Immunize for a healthy future – Know. Check. Protect.”

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Know, Check, Protect

 

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Know

  • why you need to get vaccinated
  • which vaccines you need
  • how, where and when you should get vaccinated
  • where you can go to find out more

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Check

  • whether you and family have had all the vaccines you need
  • when you need booster doses
  • whether you need any vaccines before travelling

 

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Protect

  • yourself and your family: get vaccinated

 

Details regarding latest Immunization schedule in INDIA.

http://www.iapindia.org/IMM%20Schedule.pdf

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Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

“Healthy kids, Happy Family”

 

Heat Stroke in children: what are signs and how to manage

Heat Stroke

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Human body generates a lot of heat. In normal circumstances, our body is cooled via sweating and heat radiating through skin.

In very hot and humid environment, this natural cooling mechanism of our body fails leading to build up of heat in body to dangerous levels. It can lead to various illnesses related to heat such as Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and Heat stroke.

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Causes:

  • Prolong exposure to heat and sun
  • Dehydration
  • Prolong and excessive exercising
  • Excessive clothing

Kids are more at risk as they do not drink enough fluids.

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Symptoms:

Heat cramps is the earliest sign of heat illness. If recognized early and treated well, then severe form of heat illnesses can be avoided.

Management of Heat cramps include: Shift child to a cool place, adequate rest and plenty of fluids. If possible, give fluids that contain salt and sugar. Do stretching of involved muscles.

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Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness that occurs when exposure to heat is there in absence of adequate fluids. Following are the symptoms:

  • Increased thirst
  • weakness
  • fainting
  • muscle cramps
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • irritability
  • headache
  • increase sweating
  • cool, clammy skin
  • elevation of body temperature, but less than 104°F (40°C)

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Management of Heat exhaustion

  • Shift the child to cooler area, remove excessive clothing and give plenty of fluids to drink (salt containing fluids preferable eg. ORS, coconut water etc).
  • Wrap a wet cloth or spray cool water on your child’s skin.
  • Call for medical help if as soon as possible. If child is not able to drink, then may need IV fluids via drip set.

If left untreated, heat exhaustion can develop into heatstroke, which can be fatal.

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Heatstroke

The most severe form of heat illness and it can be life threatening.

In this condition body is not able to regulate temperature leading to very high body temperature i.e. 106F or 41.1C or more and can have bad effects on brain and in some cases can even cause death.

Risk Factors are extreme physical activity and too much of cloths in hot and humid environment with poor oral intake of fluids.

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Never leave a child in car alone, it is very dangerous. In USA lots of cases of Death has occurred due to accidentally leaving child in car. Inside car temperature can reach as high as 125 F ( 51.7C) in just 20 minutes.

Management of Heat Stroke:

Call for emergency medical help if your child has been in hot environment and shows one or more of these symptoms of heatstroke:

  • severe headache
  • weakness, dizziness
  • confusion
  • nausea
  • rapid breathing and heartbeat
  • loss of consciousness
  • Seizure
  • no sweating
  • flushed, hot, dry skin
  • temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher

While waiting for help:

  • Get your child indoors or into the shade. Undress your child and sponge him or her with cool water.
  • Do not give fluids unless your child is awake, alert, and acting normally.
  • Shift to medical facility as soon as possible

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Prevention

To help protect kids from heat illness:

  • Kids should be advised to drink plenty of fluids whenever in hot and humid weather even if they are not feeling thirsty.
  • Cloths should be light colored and loose.
  •  Do not play for long duration in daytime, play mostly in evening and if possible in shade.
  •  Teach kids to come indoors, rest, and hydrate immediately whenever they feel overheated.

Regards

Dr Rahul Varma

” Healthy kids, Happy Family”

 

Myths and facts about Vaccination

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and “remember” it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.

Below mentioned link will give you relevant knowledge .

http://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

Vaccination: Myths and Facts

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“Healthy kids, Happy Family”

Regards

Dr. Rahul Varma