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Latest Immunization Schedule (IAP 2012)

Vaccination-cartoon VaccineLatest Immunization schedule (IAP 2012)

  • As parents we all have queries regarding immunization of our children.
  • Above mentioned hyperlink will tell you regarding latest immunization schedule in India as per Indian Academy of Pediatrics. It also have few salient features regarding important vaccines.
  • If any queries regarding immunization schedule , you can write to us, or consult your family Pediatrician.
  • There might be slight change in schedule as per requirement of your child.

Healthy kids, Happy family

Dr. Rahul Varma

Common Feeding Problems

 

Feeding problems occur for a number of reasons, many of which vary according to age. Most of these challenges can be met through proper breastfeeding instruction from your doctor. It may come as a surprise, then, if your baby develops a resistance to feeding weeks or even months after you thought this was no longer a problem. 

Tastes Change

One thing to consider when this happens is whether the taste of your breast milk has changed. Breast milk taste can change for a number of reasons, including the following:

  • New or different food in your diet
  • Medication you are taking
  • Pregnancy in the mother, which sometimes causes nursing babies to wean themselves a few weeks or months after the mother conceives
  • Strenuous exercise, which can lead to a temporary buildup of lactic acid
  • Breast infection, such as mastitis
  • Change in the taste of your skin caused by using lotion, cream, or oil on your breasts

Avoiding the new food, changing or stopping your medication if possible, exercising less strenuously, or refraining from applying oil or lotion to your breasts may be all that is necessary to encourage your baby to breastfeed at his normal rate again. If you have mastitis, seek treatment from your doctor right away and encourage your baby to breastfeed in order to drain your breasts. Once the infection has been treated and has passed, the taste of your breast milk will return to normal. You may be able to help your baby adjust to the new taste of your breast milk during pregnancy if you are persistent and patient and hold off on offering formula as an alternative.

If your baby starts to engage in frenzied short feedings that seem to signal frantic hunger, it may simply mean that your let-down reflex is occurring more slowly than she would like. If this is the case, try massaging your breast and expressing a little milk before you begin a feeding. This way, your milk will flow faster from the very beginning of the feeding and your baby will feel more satisfied.

Stress

If you do not believe that the taste of your breast milk has been altered or that your let-down reflex is causing the problem, consider whether you are experiencing a high level of tension or stress. Such emotional discomfort can be communicated to your baby, preventing her from settling down to feed well. Of course, we cannot always eradicate stress from our lives, but for the moments preceding breastfeeding, do your best to put upsetting thoughts out of your mind. Relaxed sessions not only will help your baby get more milk but may decrease your own stress level. Breastfeeding your baby and holding her skin to skin often promote a sense of well-being. Meanwhile, consider ways in which you might improve the general tenor of your day-to-day life.

Illness

It is also possible that your baby’s own condition may be making it harder for her to breastfeed. Decreased interest in feeding—possibly accompanied by lethargy, fever, vomiting or diarrhea, cough, or difficulty breathing—may indicate an illness. Consult your pediatrician or family physician if your baby resists feeding or you have any concerns that your infant may be sick.

Illness in your infant may affect your baby’s feeding pattern and desire to nurse, thus decreasing the amount of breast milk she receives. If she has a cold, clogged nostrils may make it difficult for her to breathe while feeding, or an ear infection may make nursing painful. Clearing the infant’s nasal passages with a bulb syringe prior to feeding may help with temporary nasal congestion. Teething can cause gum pain when nursing. Thrush can make nursing painful and requires a pediatrician’s attention.

Spitting Up

Some babies take in a great deal of milk but then spit up what appears to be a large part of it after each feeding. Spitting up is common during or after feeding, and some babies spit up more easily than others. There is generally no need to be concerned, however, that your baby’s spitting up is preventing her from getting enough milk.

Spitting up (as well as hiccups) can be minimized by keeping your breastfeeding sessions as calm, quiet, and leisurely as possible. Avoid interruptions, sudden noises, bright lights, and other distractions. Try to hold your baby more upright during and right after feedings, and attempt to burp her after she finishes each breast. Don’t jostle or play vigorously with her immediately after she has breastfed.

If she vomits forcefully a number of times or if you notice blood or a dark green color when she vomits, call your pediatrician right away.

Occasional small spit-ups or wet burps are generally more a laundry problem than a medical one. Fortunately, spit-up breast milk is less likely to smell sour or cause clothing to stain than infant formula. If you are worried that she is spitting up too much, consult your pediatrician, who will monitor her weight and check for any signs of more serious illness.

Dehydration

As always, the best way to be sure your baby is getting enough milk is to monitor her physical condition, her weight gain, and the content of her diapers. It is very important to call your pediatrician if you notice that your child is not showing usual interest in feeding, she has a dry mouth or eyes, or she is producing fewer wet diapers than usual. These may be signs of dehydration. Severe dehydration, while uncommon in adequately breastfed infants, can be extremely dangerous or even life-threatening and is most likely to occur when a young baby refuses to feed or is experiencing frequent vomiting or diarrhea.

 

regards

Dr Rahul

 stay healthy

Swine flu

Swine flu

this is the latest regarding swine flu, which u can read by clicking on the link provided (from the most reliable source as well).

I strongly suggest that u go for flu vaccine as early as possible, as it takes 2 weeks for antibodies to develop. and the strain which is going around is the same as last year so present flu vaccine is effective against it.

Regards

Dr. Rahul

stay healthy 

” healthy family , Happy family”

constipation

CONSTIPATION

  • Pain or crying during the passage of a stool (bowel movement or BM) OR
  • Unable to pass a stool after straining or pushing longer than 10 minutes OR
  • 3 or more days without a stool (Exception: Breastfed and over 1 month old)

Imitators of Constipation: Normal Variations

  • If breastfed and over 1 month old: Infrequent stools every 4-7 days that are soft, large and pain-free can be normal.
  • Before 1 month old, infrequent stools usually means an inadequate intake of breastmilk.
  • Grunting or straining while pushing out a stool is normal in young infants. (Reason: difficult to pass stool lying on back with no help from gravity) Infants commonly become red in the face during straining.
  • Brief straining or pushing for less than 10 minutes can occur occasionally at any age.
  • Large stools – Size relates to amount of food consumed and stool frequency. Large eaters have larger stools.
  • Hard or dry stools are also normal if passed easily without excessive straining. Often relates to poor fiber intake. Some children even have small, dry rabbit-pellet-like stools.

Causes:

  • High milk or cheese diet
  • Low fiber diet
  • Postponing stools
  • Slow intestinal transit time (genetic differences)

Home Care Advice for Constipation

  1. Normal Stools:
  • Once children are on a regular diet (age 1 year), the normal range for stools is 3 per day to 1 every 2 days.
  • The every 4 and 5 day kids all have pain with passage and prolonged straining.
  • The every 3 day kids usually drift into longer intervals and then develop symptoms.
  • Passing a stool should be fun, or at least free of discomfort.
  • Any child with discomfort during stool passage or prolonged straining at least needs treatment with dietary changes.

2. Diet for Infants Under 1 Year:

  • For infants over 1 month old only on breast milk or formula, add fruit juices 1 ounce (30 ml) per month of age per day. Pear or apple juice are OK at any age. (Reason: treating a symptom)
  • For infants over 4 months old, also add baby foods with high fiber content twice a day (peas, beans, apricots, prunes, peaches, pears, plums).
  • If on finger foods, add cereal and small pieces of fresh fruit.

3. Diet for Children Over 1 Year Old:

  • Increase fruit juice (apple, pear, cherry, grape, prune) (note: citrus fruit juices are not helpful).
  • Add fruits and vegetables high in fiber content (peas, beans, broccoli, bananas, apricots, peaches, pears, figs, prunes, dates) 3 or more times per day.
  • Increase whole grain foods (bran flakes, bran muffins, graham crackers, oatmeal, brown rice, and whole wheat bread. Popcorn can be used if over 4 years old.)
  • Limit milk products (milk, ice cream, cheese, yogurt) to 3 servings per day.

4. Stop Toilet Training: Temporarily put your child back in diapers or pull-ups.

  • Reassure him that the poops won’t hurt when they come out.
  • Praise him for the release of stools.
  • Avoid any pressure, punishment or power struggles about holding back poops, sitting on the potty or resistance to training.

5. Sitting on the Toilet (if toilet trained): Establish a regular bowel pattern by sitting on the

toilet for 10 minutes after meals, especially breakfast.

6. Warm Water for Rectal Pain: Warmth helps many children relax the anal sphincter and release a stool. For prolonged straining, have your child sit in warm water or apply a warm wet cotton ball to the anus. Move it side to side to help relax the anus.

7. Flexed Position:

  • Help your baby by holding the knees against the chest to simulate squatting (the natural position for pushing out a stool). It’s difficult to have a stool while lying down.
  • Gently pumping the lower abdomen may also help.

8. Call Your Doctor If:

  • Constipation continues after making dietary changes
  • Your child becomes worse

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